- gēu-, gǝu-, gū- (*sgēu-)
- gēu-, gǝu-, gū- (*sgēu-)English meaning: to bend, curl; a kind of vesselDeutsche Übersetzung: “biegen, krũmmen, wolben”Note: Root gēu-, gǝu-, gū- : to bend, curl; a kind of vessel probably derived from Root (s)keu-2, (s)keu̯ǝ : (s)kū- : to cover, wrap Phonetic evidence: M.H.G. kobe ‘stall, pigpen, cage, cavity” : Clr. kúča “ pigpen” (Trautmann 145)Material: Unextended probably in gou̯ǝ- : gū- “hand”, see there; further Nor. kaa “ turn, twist the hay “, O.N. kü “ disturb the peacefulness “ (*kawōn); kü-beinn “ bowlegged” (*gou̯o-; O.Ir. güu, gō “lie, falsity”, whether from *gōu̯ ü, here, otherwise to connect with Lat. haud); about Gk. γύης, γυῖον see under S. 398, about γύαλον see under S. 397. a. More dental extensions : gud-, geud- (occasionally gu̯-ed-?), before all in Gmc.; gudo-m “ intestine “. O.Ind. gudám “ intestine “; Maced. γόδα ἔντερα Μακεδόνες Hes.; N.Ger. kũt “ intestine “, Ger. bO.Ir. kũtz “ a part the bowels “; N.Ger. kũt, kũte also “ Intestine of smaller animals, roe bags; calf; bag, pouch “, M.L.G. kūt “ soft parts in the animal body, roe bag, calf “, Du. kuit (*kūt-) and kiete (*keot-) “ roe; calf”, Eng. dial. kyte, kite “belly, stomach “ (compare to meaning under qiÞus); O.Fris. küte (*kaut-) “ankle”, M.L.G. kōte, kūte “hoof, talon, the foot joint of horses “, N.Ger. (and borrowed Ger.) Kote, Köte “ ankle, shackle of the horses “, Dimin. M.L.G. kötel, nd. Kötel (from *kutil) “ plump excrements, e.g., from nanny goats, horses “, M.Du. cotel, Du. keutel “ds., cone, toddler”; Nor. dial. kyta “ hump, hunchback, puffed out fold, hump in an plump body, sacklike extension of a net “, Swe. dial. kūta “ go or run with stooped back “, Ger. kauzen = crouch (“ together bend “), geminated Swe. kott(e) “pine cone”, dial. kutte, kutting “ small squabby knave, boy”; with the concept of the incurvation, cavity: N.Ger. kūte “pit, pothole”, M.H.G. kūz, Ger. Kauz “ Grube als Gerichtsstätte “ (formal = Nor. dial. kūt “ deformation in growth”, Swe. dial. “tuber, bulb, hump, hunchback “; M.H.G. kūte “pit, pothole, hole”, Ger. dial. Kaute ds. probably from N.Ger.); Nor. dial. køyta “ degradation in the surface of the earth, pool; the vessel in what one carries fish “ (*kauti-) = M.H.G. kætze, Ger. dial. Kötze “ woven basket “, O.E. cȳte “cottage, house, lair “ (ȳ = īe) = Nor. køyta “ wood hut from branches “, compare Ger. dial. kieze “ bast basket “ (-eu-), O.E. cȳt-wer “fish snaring net” with expressive gemination M.L.G. etc. kutte “ female pudenda “ (M.H.G. kotze “courtesan”); hole = schlechte Wohn- oder Liegerstatt: N.Ger. (and borrowed Ger.) kot, kote “ sheds, stable, hut, stall, cottage”, M.Du. cot, cote “ cave, lair of wild animals, stable, bad hut “, O.E. cot “( robber-) cave, house, lair “, O.N. kot ‘small cottage”, kytia ds.; nasalized O.N. kunta “vulva” from M.L.G. kunte “ female pudenda; also buttocks “, Nor. Swe. kunt “ Ranzen (from birch bark)”; also Av. gunda-, gundü “ Teigballen “? gū̆ -t-, geu-t-; about gu̯-et- see distinctive article; gut-r̥ “throat”. Lat. guttur (*gūtṛ , formation as Hitt. kuttar); n. (by Plautus m.) “ gullet, throat”, guttura (Plin.) “ thick neck, swellings in the neck “; Maybe Alb. gushë “neck, throat” in addition as “ sacklike skin growth in the neck “ under likewise: geut- in O.E. cēod(a) m. ‘sack, bag, pouch “, O.H.G. kiot ds., M.L.G. kǖdel “ pouch “, M.H.G. kiutel “ dewlap, Unterkinn “, Ger. Keutel “ fishnet, intestine, swelling, lump, growth”; gut- in M.L.G. koder m., Ger. dial. Köderl, Goderl (*gut-ro-) “ Unterkinn, goitre “; maybe Alb. kodër “ (round) hill “ N.Ger. koden ds., Eng. cud “ cud, the inner gullet from ruminants”, Dutch kossem “ Unterkinn “ (*gutsmo-), Nor. kusma “ parotitis, mumps “; M.H.G. kuteln, Ger. Kutteln “Kaldaunen”; maybe Alb. (*kuta) shyta “ parotitis, mumps “ with expressive dd: O.E. codd m. “husk, pod, sack, bag”, O.Ice. koddi “pillow, cushion, testicle”; perhaps O.H.G. kutti “herd”, Ger. Kette, bO.Ir. kũtt “troop, multitude, herd of warrantable animal”; Hitt. ku-u-tar (kuttar), dat. ku-ut-ta-ni (kuttani) n. “ nape, upper arm “ (= Lat. guttur, see above); kuttanalli “ necklace “. b. guttural extensions; gugü “ball”. M.H.G. kugel(e), Ger. Kugel, M.L.G. Du. kogel ds., Ger. dial. Kogel “ round brow, edge of a hill or cliff “ (Persson Beitr. 113); rhein. Klugel, Krugel after Persson probably previously through amalgamation with kliuwel and Klũngel; with gg: O.E. cyćǵel, Eng. cudgel (*kuggila) “cudgel, club”, O.N. kuggr from M.L.G. kogge, Eng. cog “ wide, ungainly sea ship “; with Gmc. k: Ice. kjūka “ knuckle “; maybe Alb. (*kũch) kyç “ knuckle, ankle “ : Pers. gūzak “ ankle “ (see below) Nor. kjūka “clump”, kokle, kukle “clump”, kokla (and kogla), kokul “ Fruchtzapfen der Nadelbäume “; O.E. cyćel, nEng. dial. kitchel “ small cake”; in addition O.N. kjūklingr with “ gosling “, O.E. ćiećen, nEng. chicken, M.L.G. kǖken, Ger. Kũchlein “ chicken “; with Gmc. kk: O.H.G. coccho, Ger. dial. Kocke “heap, haycock, haystack, dunghill “, Dan. kok(k) “heap, haycock, haystack”; Lith. gugà f. “ knop, knob, hump, hunchback, hill”, gaũgaras m. “ summit of a mountain “; Russ. gúglja, Pol. guga ‘swelling, blister” (Persson Beitr. 937); but Lith. gúogė, gógė f. “head”, gõgas m. “ withers of the horse “, probably not from lengthened grade *gō-g-; different above Trautmann KZ. 43, 176; maybe Alb. (*kok) kokë f. “top, head” : Lith. gógė f. “head” and Dan. kok(k) “heap, haycock, haystack”; with -ĝ-: Pers. gūzak “ ankle “ (?); Lith. gùžas “knag, swelling, blister, craw “, gūžỹ s “craw “, gaũžė “head”, Ltv. gũza, guza “crop, goiter”, guzma “heap, hunch “, gũža “hip, haunch, loin, club, mace, joint of the roast “; similar to Lithuanian: gū̃ že “head of cabbage” [f ē] 2 Lith. accentuation: 1/2/4 Latvian: gũža “thigh, ham” [f jü] Proto-Slavic reconstruction: gyža (Old) Church Slavic: RuCS gyža “unripe grape” [f jü] West Slavic: Cz. hyže “tip of the shin-bone” [f jü]; Opl. giża “leg of pig or cattle, ham” [f jü] South Slavic: SCr. gì ̀(d)ža (dial.)’stump of a vine” [f jü]; Bulg. gíža “vine, stump of a cut off vine” [f ü] Maybe Alb. gic “piglet, roast of a pig?” O.Cz. hūžě “hip, haunch, thigh”, Pol. giża, giza “ capitulum, head of a bone, end of a bone in the shinbone under likewise” (also Church Slavic gyža vinьnaja “ grapevine “, Serb. gidža ds. as “knag, gnarl of a plant”); probably here as to *geng- (see there), Pol. guz ‘swelling, blister, hunch “, guza “ buttocks “, Sloven. gúza “ buttocks, hunch “, as partly probably also other, in itself also with guz = gǫz- attachable words (see *geng-); ambiguous are also the words with Balt (gunž-) gūž- as gunžỹ s, gūžỹ s “ crop by birds, head of the femur “ etc.; s. Mũhlenbach-Endzelin Ltv.-D. Wb. I 685, 687; besides Ltv. gū̆ za, guzma stand kuza “heap”, kuzma “ crop of chickens “, the formant with guza etc. stand in connection, in anlaut. k- but one with Av. fra-, apa-kava- “ in the front, behind with a hump “ and the family qeu- “bend, curve “ are coherent word to the prerequisite; about that from Slav. guz- not certainly to separative gǫz- see under geng-. c. Labial extensions; gupü “ burrow “. Gk. γύπη “ earth hollow, cave, hiding place, nook, hideaway, vulture’s nest “ (Hes.); γύψ, γῡπός “ vulture” (from the crooked beak or the crooked claws, as γρύψ to γρυπός “ writhed, crooked, humped “); Maybe Alb. (*gupos) gjyp “ vulture” Maybe Czech = Slovakian sup, Polish sęp satem s- < centum k-. O.H.G. chubisi “ a hut, cot, cottage of shepherds, peasants “, M.H.G. kobe ‘stall, pigpen, cage, cavity”, Ger. Koben “ small, miserable room or edifice, building, pigpen” (in addition M.H.G. kobolt, Ger. Kobold, z.B. Kluge11 315), O.E. cofa (Eng. cove) “ chamber, hideout, cave” (out of it O.N. kofi “ chamber, cell “), Westfäl. kũffe (*kufjō) “ miserable cottage”; basic meaning “hole in the earth as residential pit”, lit. “ arch, curvature “, N.Ger. Kũbbung “ annex “; M.H.G. Ger. Kober “basket”; Du. kub, kubbe “fish snaring net”; M.H.G. kobel m. “ (arched) box, narrow miserable house, stable “; whereas derive M.H.G. kobel n. “ rock canyon “, kofel “ brow, edge of a hill or cliff “, Ger. bO.Ir.-allem. Kofel, Kobel, Gufel , rätorom. cúvel, Ital. cóvolo “ cave, Felswand “ from Lat. *cubulum (to cubüre) “ Lagerstätte des Viehs “ (Zinsli, on the ground of Grat 322) and O.H.G. miluh-chubilī “ milk tub “, M.H.G. kũbel, Ger. Kũbel probably from M.Lat. cupellus; O.N. kūfr “ round cusp, peak, heap”, Maybe Alb. kufi “ boder, edge “ Nor. kūven “roundish, arched” (therefrom Nor. kuva, kyva “round off, make blunt, dull”, compare also Swe. kuffa ‘soften, bump, poke = N.Ger. kuffen “bump, poke, slap”), Du. kuif (M.Du. *cūve) “ plume, tuft, shock of hair, crest, treetop “ (compare in similar meaning frũhGer. Kaupe “ plume, actually, crest, on the head of the birds “ from O.H.G. *kūba, probably from the rom. family of cūpa, also O.E. cȳf “barrel, vat, cask”, O.S. kūvīn “barrel, vat, cask”, compare Fr. cuve from Lat. cūpa “ tub “); Maybe Alb.Tosk kuvli “ box “ Gmc. *kubb-: West Flemish kobbe “ Federhũschel, buschiges Нaar, Hutkopf “, O.Ice. kobbi m. “ seal “, bO.Ir. koppen “ tangled crown of a conifer “, Eng. cub “ young animal “, cob “round clump, head, spider”, presumably also Ice. kubbur, kubbi “clot, chunk, stump” (in addition Swe. Ice. Nor. kubba “ cavitate “); Gmc. *kūp-: Nor. dial. kūp “ hump, hunchback “, Swe. kupa “ half-spherical case, beehive “ under likewise; Swe. kypa “round vessel from straw”, N.Ger. kũpe “ big pannier “, Eng. dial. kipe (O.E. *cȳpe) “ plaited fish snaring net, basket”; changing through ablaut Nor. dial. kaup “ wooden jar “, kaupa “tuber, bulb”; whereas derive probably from Lat. cuppa f. “goblet”: O.E. copp m. “ acme, apex, goblet” (M.Eng. also “head), cupp m., cuppe f. “goblet”, Ger. (actually md.) Koppe “ crest of the birds “, Koppe, Kuppe, “round mountain top “, M.H.G. kuppe, O.H.G. chuppa “ headpiece “ (with expressive intensification O.H.G. chuppha ds., M.H.G. kupfe, kuffe, gupfe ds., gupf, gupfe m. “ summit of a mountain, point of the tower “, wherein g- probably substitution for romO.N. c-; O.N. koppr “head, vessel, Helmknopf, eye socket “ is Lw. from M.L.G. kopp); O.Fris. M.L.G. kopp “goblet”, O.H.G. kopf, chuph “goblet”, M.H.G. kopf “drinking vessel, cranium, head” (similarly rom. testa “head” from Lat. testa ‘shard, bowl”, M.Lat. testa capitis), Ger. Kopf. Nasalized Gmc. *kumb-: O.E. cumb (Eng. coomb) “ paten “ (in the meaning “valley” from O.Brit. *kumbo-s “valley”), M.L.G. kumm(e) f. “round, deep vessel, tub, paten “, Ger. Kumme “deep bowl”, Swiss chumme “ cistern “; *kump- (from *kumb- with consonantsharpening) M.L.G. kump, M.H.G. kumpf “vessel, cup “, Ger. Kumpf. In addition perhaps Pers. gumbed “ bulge, cupola, goblet”; further presumably Lith. gum̃bas m. “ bulge, swelling, lump, growth, knag”; Ltv. gum̃ba ‘swelling, lump, growth”; O.C.S. gǫba “ sponge, fungus “, Ser.-Cr. gȕba “ sponge, leprosy “, Sloven. gǫ́ba “ sponge, fungus “, gôbec m. “muzzle”, аčеch. húba “ sponge “, newer “muzzle, lip”, Russ. gubá “ tree-fungus “; besides gúba “lip”; in Slav. lies intonation change before, the meaning “muzzle” is everywhere newer. Under a basic meaning ‘save, store” was connected with Ger. Koben Av. gufra- “deep; mysterious, wonderful “, ostensibly originally ‘sunk in a pit “? d. With l-suffixes; geu-lo-s “round vessel”. O.Ind. gōla-ḥ “ball”, gōlü, gōlam “ ball, round water jug”; perhaps O.Ind. gula-ḥ, gulī, gulikü “ ball, globule, sphere “ (or as gel- to *gel- “ clench “); Arm. kalum “I take, catch” (*gu̯elō); Gk. γυλιός “ long-shaped wallet, hedgehog “ (also γογ-γύλος? s. gong-; about γωλεός see under *gol- “lie”); Gk. γύαλον “ cubical stone “, later “gorge, ravine, gulch”, meg. γυάλᾱς “ drinking cup “, ἐγγυαλίζω “ put into the palm of the hand, put into the hand “ (compare to latter ἐγγυάω under *gou̯ǝ-) can also as *γυσαλο- derive from the s-extension *g(e)u-s-; Lat. vola f. “ the hollow of the hand, the palm, or of the foot, the sole “ (*gu̯-elü); O.H.G. kiol, O.E. cēol, O.N. kjōll m. “(*roundish) vehicle, ship” (the newer meaning “keel” through influence of O.N. kjǫlr “keel”; Gmc. *keula- = O.Ind. gōla-), O.H.G. kiulla “ pouch “; O.E. cȳll(e) “hose, vessel”, borrowed from Lat. culleus; from which finn. keula “ wheel of the prow “, O.N. kȳll m. ‘sack, bag, pouch “ (Dutch kuil “ the middle, sacklike part of a net “ but after Franckvan Wijk Wb. 356 from aDutch kuidel from the t-extension the root); O.H.G. kūli, M.H.G. kiule, Ger. Keule (Proto-Gmc. *kūlōn-) ‘stick with a thick spherical end”, M.L.G. kūle “club, mace, joint, clavate vessel, testicle, swelling, lump, growth, polliwog; (konkav:) “pit, pothole, cave” (latter meaning also in M.H.G. kūle, Ger. (md.) kaule and O.S. kūla), M.H.G. kūle, Ger. Kaule “ball, spherical object “, Ger. Kaulquappe (of spherical appearance), O.N. kūla ‘swelling, blister, ball”; Ger. dial. kulle “ball, pulley, roller “, kullern, kollern “roll, make into a ball” (: Gk. γυλλός κύβος ἤ τετράγωνοςλίθος Hes. with coloring of the meaning round?); presumably also O.N. kollr m. “ rounded acme, apex, head”, M.L.G. kol, kolle m. “ head, uppermost part of plants “, Ger. kũllbock and (zero grade) kielbock “ hornless hegoat; billy goat “, compare Alb. tsjap gul “ hornless he-goat; billy goat “; Nor. køyla (*kauliōn) “gully, canal”. e. With n-suffix; gou-no-m “ curled, arched “. Av. gaona- n. “hair (esp. the animal); (hair)farbe” (compare above Lith. gauraĩ etc.); particularly Gmc. formation O.N. kaun n. ‘swelling, blister”, mnl. coon f. “ jaw, mandible, lower jaw bone “, nld. koon “cheek” (*kaunō); in addition Goth. kuna-wida “manacle” (“crooked rope”, to O.H.G. widi “rope”). f. With r-suffixes; geu-ro-s, gou-ro-s, gū-ro-s, gur-no-s. Arm. kuṙn gen., kṙan “back” (= Lith. gur̃nas), kr-ukn, gen. krkan “calcaneus “, kur, gen. kri “boat, barge”, also “Becken, paten, Pfanne”; kray (*gūrüti-) “turtle, tortoise”; o-grade kor (*gou̯-ero- or -ero-) “ writhed, crooked, humped, bent, curved; inverted “, kori “canal”, koriz ‘swelling, lump, growth; kernel, seed “; Gk. γῡρός “ round, veer “, γῦρος “ roundness, circle, round pit, pothole”, γῡρόω “curve “, γυρῖνος or γύρῑνος “ polliwog “ (as M.L.G. kū-le, Ger. Kaulquappe, see above); M.Ir. gūaire “hair” (originally “* curly hair”, compare:) Ir. guairneán “whirlwind”; Nor. kaure “frizzy curl (esp. from wool)”, kaur “ curled wave “ (IE *gou-ro-; besides Gmc. *kau̯-ara- in:) O.N. kürr m. “frizzy curl “, küri “ the gust of wind curling the water “, Nor. kåre “ shavings “; with -eu- Gmc. loanword finn. keuru “ arched “; with ū (compare γῡρός and the ū̆ included Arm. words) Nor. kūra “ squat; rest”, M.L.G. kūren “waylay (for the hunt)”, Ger. kauern; with application of coagulation of the milk Nor. kjøre (*keuran-) “ cheese in the first state “, kūr (*kūra-) “ds., coagulated milk”, køyr (*kauri-) “ cheese mass of sour milk “, kaara (*kau̯arōn) “ curdle, coagulate, harden, become caseous “ (doubtful whereas Sloven. etc. žû r “wheys” because of the ĝ indicating additional form Sloven. zûra, zzra “wheys”); maybe Alb. hirra “whey”); Lith. gaũras m., mostly pl. gauraĩ “ hair in the body, flax fiber “, Ltv. gauri m. pl. “pubic hair” (compare above Av. gaona- n. “hair”); Lith. gur̃nas m. “hip, haunch, ankle “, Ltv. gùrus “ hip, fork in the spinning wheel “ (= Arm. kuṙn); Lith. gū̃ rinti, gūrú oti “ get writhed, crooked, humped “, Ltv. gūrâ ties, guôrîties “ loll oneself, stretch oneself”; Lith. kálno gùras m. “ mountain projection “; Serb. gȕra f. “ hunch “, gȕriti se “ shrink up, crook”; if here Ser.-Cr. žú riti se “ hurry “?; s. also under ĝeu- “ expedite, hurry”; also Bulg. gúrkam, gúrnъ “ dive in the water “?; the intonation required *gōurü or *gou̯erü (compare above O.N. kürr etc.). maybe Alb. gurra “rapid” g. With s-suffixes: Pers. gōšü “ angle, point, edge”; Gk. γύης “ the crooked piece of wood in a plow “, ἄροτρον αὑτόγυον “ Pflug, an dem Krummholz und Scharbaum noch aus einem Stũck bestanden “ (s-suffix doubtful), wherefore γύης “ piece of wood as field measure “ (*γυ[σ]ᾱς-, but also *γυFᾱς- possible); Gk. γυῖον “ limb, the feet, womb, hands, the hand, (so prob. as device on signet); the whole body “; maybe Alb. gji “womb” Gk. μητρὸς γυῖα “lap”, γυιόω “ lame “, from which γυιός “ lame “ (Grdf. *γυσ-ι̯ον; or γυF-ι̯ον? ders. doubt by γύαλον, see above), γαυσός “crooked, bent outwards, writhed humped (from legs)”, γαυσόομαι “ to be bent “ (but γαυσάδας ψευδής Hes. perhaps Gaelic, to O.Ir. gáu “lie, falsity”?) can σ have preserved after other adj. in -σός for “ stooped, writhed, crooked, humped “, yet αυ is also difficult, because an ablaut *gēu- : gǝu- in spite of the frequent grade *gū- stands not certainly; unclear Hom. ἀμφίγυος “ with a limb at each end, doublepointed, or bending both ways, elastic”, epithet of spear, and ἀμφιγυήεις “ he that halts in both feet, the lame one “, epithet of Hephaistos; maybe also Alb. gënjej “lie” M.L.G. nnd. kūse “ stump, club, mace, joint; grinder, molar tooth “, Nor. dial. kūs “ hump, hunchback “; Swe. kusa “pudenda”; O.N. kjōss f. “ pouch “, kjōss m. “bay, cavity”, farø. kjōs f. “craw “, Swe. kjusa “ valley gulch “, kjus “point, edge of a poke “ under likewise, Nor. kȳsa (*keusiōn-) and køysa (*kausiōn-) “ crest, bonnet, cowl “.[u]References: WP. I 555 ff., WH. I 112 f., 311, 629, 852, Trautmann 80, 100 f.
Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.